The dog appeasing pheromone is released by the mother to her puppies to support bonding and to provide comfort and reassurance. This ‘support’ gives puppies enough confidence to explore and learn about the world around them.

This dog appeasing pheromone is proven to have the same ‘comforting’ influence on adult dogs. ADAPTIL® is a copy of this pheromone and is proven to help provide a strong signal of security and comfort to dogs of all ages. ADAPTIL® helps adults dogs feel reassured and relaxed in all challenging situations.

The effect of ADAPTIL® has been shown in more than 23 studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals or presented at international conferences (Known as D.A.P.® in the papers published until 2011).

Adoption of Puppies

Settling into a new home is a stressful and disorientating process for a puppy. It is usually the first time a puppy has spent any time alone, separated from its siblings and it usual of comfort and reassurance, the dam.

The trials outlined below show how ADAPTIL® Junior and ADAPTIL® Calm can help reassure puppies and dogs after adoption.

A placebo-controlled study to investigate the effect of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) and other environmental and management factors on the reports of disturbance and house soiling during the night in recently adopted puppies (Canis familiaris).

Taylor K, Mills D S Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2007; 105, 358-368

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to investigate the effect of ADAPTIL® (D.A.P.®) on 60 pedigree puppies, aged between 6 and 10 weeks, as they entered their new home.

A few days prior to arrival, the new owners were asked to plug in either a ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffuser or a placebo diffuser. Puppies were monitored for a total of 8 weeks following their adoption. Owners were asked to fill in a form assessing disturbances.

The effect of the treatment, together with the gender of the puppies, maternal environment, use of puppy crates and experience of owners were included in a general linear model to explain the total number of nights spent disturbing and house soiling.


Over 70% of puppies sleeping alone caused disturbance during the first night. The average total number of nights of disturbance over the 8 week period was between 5 and 6 nights, mostly in the first week in the home. ADAPTIL® significantly improved the gundog breeds - gundogs receiving the placebo cried for a median of 9 nights, while those receiving ADAPTIL® cried for a median of 3 nights (p=0.003). Sleeping with another dog reduced the puppies’ tendency to disturb at night to almost zero. No effect on house soiling was seen.


This study suggests that, when puppies are going to homes with no other dogs, ADAPTIL® may help to reduce the likelihood of prolonged disturbance at night, particularly if the puppy is a large breed dog

Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) in reducing reducing stress associated with social isolation in newly adopted puppies.

In this randomised and double-blinded trial 66 puppies adopted from a pet shop were included. ADAPTIL® Junior Collars were used on 32 puppies, placebo collars were used on 34 other puppies, at random when they arrived at the pet shop. On the day they left the shop the collars were replaced to ensure the release of ADAPTIL® was consistent during the following ‘evaluation’ period.

Owners were contacted by telephone 3 and 15 days after they had adopted a puppy to obtain information about integration into the family, ‘nuisance’ or attention seeking behaviours shown at night and signs of distress when the puppy was socially isolated, during the day.


All the puppies in the control group vocalised during the first night, with more than 30% still causing disturbance by night 15. All the puppies in ADAPTIL® Junior group showed significantly lower levels of vocalisation on the first night (p≤0.001), with vocalisation ceasing completely from night 5. Contact seeking was also significantly lower in the ADAPTIL® Junior group by day 3 and throughout the rest of the study (p≤0.001).

The mean number of nights puppies disturbed their owners was 1.2 in ADAPTIL® Junior group compared to 8.9 in the placebo group.

Note: the difference observed on Day 0 between the two groups is due to the fact that puppies were already wearing collars in the pet shop, for several days before adoption. This explains why night crying in puppies wearing ADAPTIL® Junior was less frequent than in the placebo group.

Gaultier E, Bonnafous L, Vienet-Legue D, Falewee C, Bougrat L, Lafont-Lecuelle C, Pageat P Veterinary Record, 2008; 163, 73-80


In this trial, ADAPTIL® Junior quickly and effectively reduced several known stress-related behaviours commonly seen following adoption (in particular vocalisations and contact seeking behaviour), as soon as 3 days after introduction to the new home.

Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) in reducing behaviours associated with fear of unfamiliar people and new surroundings in newly adopted puppies.

In this randomised and double-blinded trial 66 puppies adopted from a pet shop were included. ADAPTIL® Junior Collar was used on 32 puppies and placebo collars were used on 34 other puppies, at random when they arrived at the pet shop. On the day they left the shop the collars were replaced to ensure the release of ADAPTIL® was consistent during the following ‘evaluation’ period.

Owners were interviewed by phone 3 and 15 days post adoption and questioned about how their puppy had reacted in specific situations, such as when encountering new or unfamiliar objects or people.


The puppies in ADAPTIL® Junior group were less fearful than control puppies from D3 (quick effect), with significant differences still observed by 15 days after adoption. 25 20 15 10 5 0 Day 3 Day 15 Day 3 Day 15 Day 3 Day 15 ADAPTIL® Junior


Puppies in ADAPTIL® Junior group learnt to cope with stressful situations more quickly than puppies in the control group. By reducing the number of exposures required to habituate a puppy to a stimuli, ADAPTIL® Junior is likely to make the “settling in a new home” process faster and easier for the puppy and the owner. This trial also backs up previous research and suggests owners should continue to use the collars to maintain their positive effects post adoption and help ensure correct socialisation.

Gaultier E, Bonnafous L, Vienet-Legue D, Falewee C, Bougrat L, Lafont C, Pageat P Veterinary Record, 2009; 164, 708-714

Puppy Socialisation and Training

Puppy classes, when properly carried out, can be very helpful. As correct training while the puppy is in the more ‘receptive’ socialisation phase, dramatically increases the likelihood that they will stay in its new home for life*. However, it is also vital that steps are taken to ensure these early experiences are ‘positive’ and that the puppy is able to cope appropriately with each new stimulus*.

ADAPTIL® Junior has been proven to help reduce signs of stress in puppies during their socialisation phase and through training sessions in the following publications. Also proving to reduce levels of arousal, anxiety and fears during puppy classes and for long-term socialisation.

  • Duxbury M M, Jackson J A, Line S W, et al. Evaluation of association between retention in the home and attendance at puppy socialisation classes. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2003; 223 61-66 2
  • Seksel K, Mazurski E J, Taylor A, Puppy socialisation programs: short and long term behavioural

Evaluation of the effectiveness of synthetic D.A.P.® (dog appeasing pheromone) in reducing levels of arousal and improving learning in puppy classes.

Graham D, Mills D S, Bailey G Proceedings of the Companion Animal Behaviour Therapy Study Group, 2007

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effect of ADAPTIL® on puppy behaviour, levels of arousal and learning in puppy school socialisation and training classes.

Sixty one puppies under 20 weeks of age enrolled on a 6 week course. Each class had a minimum of 3 and maximum of 8 puppies. In the treatment groups, 2 ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffusers were plugged in approximately 30 minutes before the first class and located separately but immediately behind the owners’ seating.

Levels of arousal were determined from both acoustic and behavioural data from weeks 1 to 5 at 3 different venues. Changes in behaviour were assessed via video analysis during periods of free interaction in weeks 1 and 5 and learning was assessed at week 5 by the trainer in 3 different exercises (sit, recall and walking on a loose lead).


The frequency of barking in the ADAPTIL® group was significantly lower than in the placebo group (p=0.004). There was a large increase in puppy play in the placebo group which suggests that the ADAPTIL® group was generally less aroused. Within the treatment groups, levels of exploratory sniffing (p = 0.0352) and pawing (p = 0.0175) were significantly higher in the placebo group, whereas rapid withdrawal was higher in the ADAPTIL® group (p = 0.0047). As was the tendency to roll over (p = 0.0530) suggesting that the ADAPTIL® group tended to exhibit more social appeasing behaviour than the placebo group. Although no significant differences were found between the groups when assessed on the ability to sit, recall and walk on a loose lead, 74.6% of puppies in the ADAPTIL® group compared with 68% of puppies in the placebo group gained the higher grades.


In this trial, ADAPTIL® was effective in significantly reducing and maintaining lower levels of vocalisation in puppy classes. Puppies in classes using ADAPTIL® were less aroused and showed more appeasing behaviours.

Effects of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) on anxiety and fear in puppies during training and on long-term socialisation.

Forty five puppies between the ages of 3 and 4 months were split into 4 separate puppy classes - 2 for large breeds, 2 for small breeds. ADAPTIL® Junior Collars were fitted to the puppies in 2 classes (1 large breed class and 1 small breed class). Placebo collars were used in the other 2 classes. Puppies attended their classes once a week for 8 weeks and were taught by the same trainer throughout.

Before the first class and after each subsequent class the trainer and owners completed a questionnaire evaluating the puppies’ learning, fear, excitability, interactions and progress. Each question was ranked on a 5 point scale.

As ADAPTIL® Junior lasts for 4 weeks, each ADAPTIL® Junior Collar was replaced once during the 8 week study period. Follow-up telephone surveys were performed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the classes ended to ascertain the owners’ perception of their puppies’ behaviour.


Puppies in ADAPTIL® Junior groups displayed a significantly lower degree of fear and anxiety, longer and more positive interactions during play, and better response to training. The data from the telephone surveys indicated that the puppies in ADAPTIL® Junior groups were significantly better socialised (p<0.01) and adapted faster in new situations and environments.


In this trial, the ADAPTIL® Junior demonstrated both short and long-term beneficial effects on puppy behaviour. ADAPTIL® Junior was useful in reducing degrees of anxiety and arousal in puppies attending training classes. Furthermore, the use of ADAPTIL® Junior during the classes resulted in improved socialisation of dogs up to 1 year af ter classes concluded, helping puppies develop into balanced and well-trained adult dogs.

Denenberg S, Landsberg G M Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2008; 233, 1874-1882

Median socialisation scores for puppies that attended training classes for an 8-week period. Puppies were assessed by their owners at various time points during the 12 months after classes concluded, according to a 5-point scoring system (0 = very bad; 1 = bad; 2 = impartial; 3 = good; and 4 = very good).

Effectiveness of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) collars applied during the socialization period for prevention of development of fear and anxiety.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled ADAPTIL® Junior study included 62 sevenweek.old future guide dogs.1 Sets of 3 collars (ADAPTIL® Junior or placebo) were randomly assigned and applied consecutively from 7-19 weeks of age. Puppy raisers completed C-BARQ2 at 19weeks, 6 & 12 months, and Leader Dog (LD) survey at 3 & 6 months.

One C-BARQ section: fear and anxiety, evaluates response to sounds, objects, persons or situations on a five-point scale (0-4). Holding these well-trained dogs to a high standard, a “perfect” response required “no signs of fear or anxiety” and any fearful responses were considered “poor”. Greater than 90% of all subjects achieved “perfect” for 9 questions. The remaining 10 questions were analysed by Chi square or Fisher Exact test to compare the number of ADAPTIL® Junior and placebo-subjects achieving a perfect response at 19w, 6m, 12m and all time points combined (C).


When compared to placebo, more ADAPTIL® Junior subjects achieved “perfect” response to the following: approach by unfamiliar dog at 12 months (12m) (p=0.038); sudden or loud noises: 12m (p=0.064), C (p=0.028); and first exposure to new situations (veterinarian, car, elevator) at 19 weeks (19w) (p=0.022), 6m (p=0.046) and C (p=0.011).

On the Leader Dogs survey at 3m & 6m, puppies in ADAPTIL® Junior group achieved perfect response to movement at 3m (p=0.0081) and 6m (p=0.090); children 6m (p=0.048), animals 3m (p=0.060) and noises 3m (p=0.072) while there was no evidence placebo-subjects did better.


When applied during the socialisation period, ADAPTIL® Junior was useful in reducing anxiety and fear in puppies during and even beyond the treatment period.

DePorter T, Beck A, and Landsberg G Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Behaviour Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal, 2013; 91-92

Leader Dogs for the Blind ( Rochester, MI USA 2.

C-BARQ (Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire) Center for the interaction of Animals and Society of the University of Pennsylvania.

The response to sudden or loud noises (e.g. vacuum cleaner, car backfire, road drills, object being dropped, etc) in ADAPTIL® Junior or placebo group.

Dog Socialisation and Training

ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar and ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffuser have been proven in the following publications to reduce signs of stress during training in adult dogs, help adult dogs undergoing specific trainings to become working dogs and aid in preventing the development of fear and anxiety in adult dogs.

Efficacy evaluation of D.A.P.® diffuser versus placebo diffuser for guide dogs completing the final stage of training program leading to graduation as a working guide dog with a visually impaired person.

Schroll S, Dehasse J, Palme R, Sommerfeld-Stur I, Lőwenstein G Current Issues and Research in Veterinary Behavioural Medicine. Proceedings of the 5th International Veterinary Behaviour Meeting, Minneapolis, USA, 2005; 31-34

At 16 to 22 months of age, police dogs in Austria are taken from their home environment to start an intensive 15 week training course. They experience isolation and separation anxiety with signs including excessive barking and howling at night, increased excitement, lack of concentration at work, weight loss, diarrhoea and salivation.

In this trial, 9 male dogs (2 German Shepherds, 4 Malinois, 2 Dutch Herders and 1 Giant Schnauzer) between 19 and 22 months of age were divided into 2 random groups. 5 dogs were fitted with ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar and 4 were fitted with a placebo. Physical and behavioural signs (appetite, salivation, diarrhoea, panting, destructiveness, vocalisation at night and psychological condition) were recorded daily by the owner.


From the first training day, all dogs were quiet during the night. Only 1 dog from each group barked during the 4 weeks and this was for a few times for less than 10 minutes, without vocalisation reaction from the other dogs. In the morning, the dogs were relaxed. None had diarrhea, salivation or appetite loss. The weight of the dogs in ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar group remained stable whereas the dogs in the placebo group lost weight, which could be considered a sign of a possible chronic stress.


Although performed on a limited sample size (9 dogs), this preliminary trial suggested that ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar, when used in conjunction with owner education, might reduce the signs of stress in young adult police dogs during training.

Kennels and Rescue Centres

The kennel environment can be very stressful for dogs and most require support while they adapt. During this adaptation phase dogs often show a variety of stress-related signs including excessive barking, fear, lack of appetite and aggression.

ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar and ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffuser have been proven to help reduce signs of stress in kennelled dogs, as supported by the following publications.

Adaptive mechanisms in dogs adopted from shelters: a behavioural assessment of the use of a synthetic analogue of the canine appeasing pheromone.

Adaptation to a new socio-environment might represent a very hard step for sheltered dogs, because of a higher level of difficulty in coping with unfamiliar conditions, possibly limiting the success rate of rehoming. The aim of this prospective open-label study was to investigate the effects of ADAPTIL® in dogs and puppies re-homed from a private rescue shelter.

Thirty-two healthy dogs (16 puppies and 16 adults), of any breed or mix-breed, aged between 1 and 7 years for adults, 2 and 6 months for puppies, were included. At adoption, ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffusers were given to owners to plug into their home and a replacement refill to be changed at day 28 (D28). No instructions were given to the new owners to prevent behaviour problems in their newly adopted dog or puppy. The owners were interviewed at 28 and 56 days at the shelter. They were asked to rate the frequency of several behavioural signs (using a four-point scale) and the evolution of each behavioural sign from D28 to D56, on a five point scale. After 56 days, the trial ceased.


Significant decreases from D28 to D56 were observed in adult dogs for wandering in the house restlessly (p=0.022) and hiding fearfully in protected corners (p=0.033), whereas in puppies in the ADAPTIL® Calm group significantly (p<0.05) improved the reaction towards unfamiliar dogs (p=0.048) and wandering in the house restlessly (p=0.022). In both adults and puppies a significant improvement in interaction with owners was observed. In particular, “looking continuously for the owners” and “following the owners everywhere like a shadow” were significantly improved (p=0.0012 and 0.0016 respectively) in adult dogs. Separation reactions revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) and in puppies the tendency to vocalise in absence of the owner was also significantly reduced (p=0.0029). Both adults and puppies showed a decreased tendency to wake suddenly in the night (p=0.024 and p=0.026 respectively) and wander around the home (p=0.012 and p=0.026 respectively). In contrast, for house-training no significant difference was reported in adult dogs, whereas for puppies there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean scores for urination and/or defecation wherever in the house and after coming home.

Data regarding the overall assessment suggested a significant improvement in all the efficacy variables considered in the study. The analysis of owners’ degree of satisfaction at the final visit showed that ADAPTIL® Calm was considered successful by 84.4 % of owners against 53.1% at D28 visit, while the percentage of unsatisfied owners (46.9%) at D28 decreased to 15.6% at D56 (p<0.0001).


Results suggest that the use of ADAPTIL® Calm might improve dogs’ adaptability throughout the first weeks following adoption and can be considered a useful tool for reducing stress in re-homed dogs. This could ultimately help to decrease the return rate to the shelter.

Osella M.C., Bergamasco L., Odore R., Beck A., Gazzano A. Dog Behaviour, 2-2015, pp. 1-12 doi 10.4454/db.v1i2.10

No dogs in the 32 included returned to the shelter, according to a phone follow up at one month, two months and 6 months after adoption.

Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) in reducing stress and fear related behaviour in shelter dogs.

ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffuser was plugged into a socket above the internal pens in a kennel block in a public animal shelter in Scotland. 37 dogs in ADAPTIL® Calm group and 17 dogs in the control group dogs were assessed using 2 temperament tests associated with fear, separation and excitable behaviour, at Day 0 (D0) and D7. An ethogram was used to identify relaxed, fearful or anxious behaviours.


Mean barking amplitude (p<0.001) and frequency (p<0.04) were significantly reduced in dogs exposed to ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffuser for 7 days, though peak values were not significantly altered. There was also a significant reduction in the mean barking amplitude of dogs during the 1 minute recovery period, following a distraction (people walking steadily along the passageway) at D7. After 7 days of exposure to ADAPTIL®, there were significant differences in resting (p=0.03), barking (p<0.04) and sniffing (p=0.01) frequency in response to a friendly stranger.


In this trial, ADAPTIL® Calm Home Diffuser helped reduce some behavioural indicators of stress in dogs in kennels, but allowed normal behavioural responses to distractions in the local environment.

Tod E, Brander D, Waran N Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2005; 93, 295-308

Barking frequency in dogs at day 0 before exposure to ADAPTIL® and at day 7 following continuous exposure to ADAPTIL®. n = 37 (in response to friendly stranger test)

Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.®) in reducing stress related responses in rescue shelter dogs.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effect of ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar on reducing stress-related behaviours over a 10 day period following the admission of 90 dogs to a dog re-homing centre in the UK (31 ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collars, 29 placebo collars, 30 control - no collars). The dogs’ behaviour was observed for 10 minutes on days 2 and 10 after admission using 2 video cameras located at the front and rear of the kennels. A variation on the ethogram used by Tod et al. (2005) was utilised to identify behaviours suggestive of relaxation, fear or anxiety.


ADAPTIL® Calm group spent less time locomoting on days 2 (p<0.05) and 10 (p<0.05) compared to the placebo group and the control group and longer lying on day 10 (p<0.01) compared to the placebo group. ADAPTIL® Calm group also displayed a lower frequency of barking on day 2 (p<0.01) compared to the placebo group and the control group.


In this trial, ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar was an effective tool in reducing some of the stressrelated behaviours known to occur in dogs in the shelter environment including excessive locomotion and vocalisation.

ADAPTIL® Calm On-the-go Collar was also effective in promoting behaviour suggestive of relaxation such as lying down. ADAPTIL® did not affect normal reactions to activity going on around the dog but the reduction in frequency seen suggests that the dogs recovered more quickly after a challenge.

Barlow N, and Goodwin D Proceedings of the Companion Animal Behaviour Therapy Study Group, 2009